Tetrao urogallus Linnaeus, 1758, Sweden. Twelve subspecies.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
French: Grand tйtras; German: Auerhuhn; Spanish: Urogallo Comъn.
Male 32–35 in (83–90 cm); female 23–25 in (59–64 cm); male 7.3–14.3 lb (3.3–6.5 kg); female 3.3–5.5 lb (1.5–2.5 kg). Males are mostly slate gray with a blackish head and neck, red eye combs, glossy greenish black breast, dark brown wings with white carpal patch, varying amounts of white on upper wings and underparts, and long, rounded tail. Females are mottled and barred in gray, buff, and black with a large rusty breast patch.
Northern Britain and Scandinavia to eastern Russia; more fragmented in eastern and southeastern Europe, the Alps; isolated populations in northern Spain and Pyrenees.
13–14 in (33–36 cm); 0.6–0.7 lb (270–310 g). Brownish gray with black bars on upperparts, black chin bordered in white, a chestnut upper breast, and underparts spotted and barred in dark gray and ochre. Small erectile crest on head. Barred pattern on the tail distinguishes this species from B. bonasia.
China: central Gansu to southern Quinghai, eastern Tibet, northwestern Yunnan, and northern and western Sichuan.
Montane forests at 3,300–13,100 ft (1,000–4,000 m); conifer near treeline, birch and conifer below, willow thickets on riverbanks.
Forms flocks of up to 15 for fall-winter; spring dispersal for breeding; males repeat noisy display for most of day, and fight in treetops.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Forages on ground and in trees for buds and shoots of willow and birch, also taking various flowers, seeds, and berries.
Monogamous. Nests on ledges and stumps in May–June; clutch size five to eight; incubation 25 days.
Near Threatened as forest clearance and fragmentation causes local extinctions, with hunting and egg-collecting a problem outside protected areas.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
A hunted resource locally.
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