Turdus harmonicus Latham, 1801, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Six subspecies.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
Brown or western shrike-thrush; French: Pitohui gris; German: Graubrust-Gudilang; Spanish: Charlatбn Verdugo Gris.
8.9–9.8 in (22.5–25.0 cm); 0.13–0.16 lb (58–74 g). Gray head, tail coverts and underparts with brownish back and wings.
C. h. brunnea: northwest and north Australia; C. h. superciliosa: northeast Australia; C. h. tachycrypta: southeast New Guinea; C. h. harmonica: southeast and east central Australia; C. h. strigata: Tasmania; C. h. rufiventris: southwest Australia.
May be found in many habitat types, including rainforest, eucalypt forest and woodland, mangroves, dry open woodlands, riverine vegetation, urban parks, and gardens, from sea level up to about 5,610 ft (l,700 m).
Often tame in east, shy in west. Sedentary, although young of year may disperse some distance. Territorial in all seasons. Generally unobtrusive except when singing; most vocal when breeding. Loud musical song varies geographically and among individuals, who have a wide repertoire.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Forages deliberately on the ground, logs, limbs and trunks of trees, and in foliage. Eats insects, spiders and other invertebrates, small vertebrates including lizards, nestling birds, and small mammals. Prey obtained mainly by gleaning from bark and leaves, sometimes from the ground.
Breeds July–February, opportunistically in drier areas, producing one to two broods per season. Sexes share nest building, incubation, and care of young. Nest is a cup of bark, grass, other dry vegetation, lined with rootlets. It is placed in fork or tangle of vegetation, in crevice, or on stump, ledge or ground, usually within 20 ft (6 m) of ground. The two to four white eggs are blotched and spotted with gray and olive-brown. Incubation 17–18 days.
Not threatened. Common in Australia, although in west decreasing round human habitation; fairly common to scarce in New Guinea, but possibly expanding range.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
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