Caprimulgus macrurus Horsfield, 1821, Java. Seven subspecies.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
English: Horsfield’s or long-tailed nightjar; French: Engoulevent de Horsfield; German: Langschwanz-Nachtschwalbe; Spanish: Chotacabras Macruro.
10–13 in (25–33 cm); 1.9–2.7 oz (55–78 g). Grayish brown, blackish brown, buff, and white cryptic coloration. Sexually dimorphic.
Southern Asia from northeast Pakistan to Hainan, south through East Indies to northern and eastern Australia.
Open forests, woodland, scrub, and plantations.
Roosts during daytime, usually on ground. Active from dusk until before dawn. Territorial song a monotonous “t-chop” repeated in long series.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Hunts for insect prey using prolonged hawking flights and by shorter sallying flights from perches or ground.
Unlined nest on ground with clutch of two eggs. Incubation at least mainly by female. Eggs are pale cream to dull buff with blackish brown spots. Incubation period is 21–22 days; fledging period is about three weeks. Small young have buff down.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
Noticed mainly by nocturnal song, from which local names such as axe-, carpenter-, or hammer-bird are derived.
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