Trupialis superciliaris Bonaparte, 1851, Matto Grosso, Brazil.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
English: Red-breasted blackbird; French: Sturnelle а sourcils blancs; German: Rotbruststдrling, Weissbrauenstдrling; Spanish: Pecho Colorado, Pechicolorado Chico.
6.5–7 in (17–18 cm); female 1.4 oz (39.5 g), male 1.9 oz (53 g). Sexually dimorphic in color. Males are black with a bright red throat, breast, and shoulders (visible in flight), and a prominent white stripe behind the eye. Females have a pale buff stripe above the eye, dark brown crown stripes and a dark brown stripe behind the eye, with a brown, mottled back, and buff undersides, with streaks on the throat and belly, but not on the breast, which is variously tinged with pink.
Resident from southeastern Peru and west-central Brazil south to northern Argentina, and also in the lowlands of eastern Brazil. Withdraw from the southernmost part of the range in Argentina in winter. Found from sea level to over 8,200 ft (2,500 m).
Grasslands and damp pastures.
Gregarious, especially in the nonbreeding season, but they often nest in loose colonies. Territorial during the breeding season. Males have a spectacular butterfly-like aerial display: they fly to a height of over 66 ft (20 m) over their territory, then parachute downward while singing. They also sing from the ground. Females are difficult to see.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Forage on ground where they take seeds and insects. They often feed among livestock and agricultural fields.
Monogamous. Nest is placed on the ground, with grass pulled over it, so that it is not visible from above. Commonly 3–5 eggs are laid in October–January. Data on incubation and fledging not available.
Not threatened. Locally common throughout; increasing in numbers and expanding its range in response to the spread of cultivation of rice and other grain crops.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
May cause local damage to crops.
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