The gray fox is mainly distinguished from most other canids by its grizzled upper parts, black-tipped tail and strong neck, while the skull can be easily distinguished from all other North American canids by its widely separated temporal ridges that form a U-shape. There is little sexual dimorphism, save for the females being slightly smaller than males. The gray fox ranges from 76 to 112. 5 cm (29. 9 to 44. 3 in) in total length. The tail measures 27. 5 to 44. 3 cm (10. 8 to 17. 4 in) of that length and its hind feet measure 100 to 150 mm (3. 9 to 5. 9 in). The gray fox typically weighs 3. 6 to 7 kg (7. 9 to 15. 4 lb), though exceptionally can weigh as much as 9 kg (20 lb). It is readily differentiated from the red fox by the lack of "black stockings" that stand out on the latter and the stripe of black hair that runs along the middle of the tail as well as individual guard hairs being banded with white, gray, and black. The gray fox displays white on the ears, throat, chest, belly and hind legs. In contrast to all Vulpes and related (Arctic and fennec) foxes, the gray fox has oval (instead of slit-like) pupils.
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