Training techniques assumed to be wolf pack related such as scruff shaking, the alpha roll and recommendations to be alpha to the dog continue to be used and recommended by some dog training instructors. It has been suggested that the use of such techniques may have more to do with human psychology than with dog behaviour; "dominance hierarchies and dominance disputes and testing are a fundamental characteristic of all social groups. . . But perhaps only we humans learn to use punishment primarily to gain for ourselves the reward of being dominant. Most leading veterinary and animal behavior associations, and most contemporary trainers would agree, advocating the use of rewards to teach commands and encourage good communication between owners and their pets. Modern best practices dictate an abandonment of outdated "pack" methods. Some canine behaviourists suggest that kind, efficient training uses games to teach commands which can be utilised to benefit the owner's everyday life.
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