Loxops coccineus Gmelin, 1789.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
French: Loxopse des Hawaп; German: Akepa; Spanish: Akepa.
5 in (12.5 cm); 4–6 oz (10–12 g). Male mostly bright orange, female gray-green with a paler underside. Bill is distinctive feature; it has a lower tip bent to one side, as in the crossbills (Loxia spp).
Big Island of Hawaii. Extinct on Oahu, probably extinct on Molokai.
Old growth koa and ohia forest, wet and mesic, 3,610–6,890 ft (1,100–2,100 m) above sea level.
Lively and nimble forager. Male’s call is high-pitched, descending trill.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Uses its unusual bill to pry apart scales of buds to reach tiny insects inside; caterpillars are main diet.
Monogamous. Pairs form from July through September, start nest building in March, female lays eggs anytime from mid- March to late May, hatchlings fledge by end of June. Both parents feed chicks, but only female builds the cuplike nest. Males undergo a long delay in attaining adult plumage. Second-year males have mostly gray-green coloration like females, and rarely try to breed. Third-year males are partially orange, and small numbers breed; the next year males have full orange plumage and full breeding capacity.
Listed as endangered federally, by state, and by the IUCN.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
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