Anas histrionicus Linnaeus, 1758, America = Newfoundland ex Edwards. Monotypic.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
English: Harlequin; French: Arlequin plongeur; German: Kragenente; Spanish: Pato Arlequнn.
15.0–20.1 in (38–51 cm); 1.2–1.5 lb (540–680 g). Distinctive white markings on head, chest, and back.
Eastern Siberia from Lake Baikal north to about 68° and east to central western Alaska and Yukon. South in North America to California and east to southern Baffin Island and Quebec. Greenland, and Iceland. Winters along coasts of Kamchatka, Bearing Sea islands, Japan, Korea, China, California, and from southern Labrador south to Long Island.
Fast flowing rocky rivers during the breeding season and rocky coastlines during the nonbreeding season.
Loosely territorial and aggressive. Males guard their mate. Return to the same breeding area each year. Migratory.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Has mostly an animal diet of invertebrates and some fish. Mostly dives for food, but also dabbles, up-ends, and dips its head in shallow water.
Seasonally monogamous until midincubation. Same birds may re-pair in the following season. Breeding begins May–Jun. The nest is well hidden on the ground. Commonly lays 5–7 eggs; incubation 27–29 days; fledging c. 60–70 days; becomes sexually mature at 2 years.
Not threatened. Locally common with stable populations.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
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