Anas olor Gmelin, 1789, “Russia, Sibiria, Persico etiam littore maris Caspii.” Monotypic.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
French: Cygne tuberculй; German: Hцckerschwan; Spanish: Cisne Vulgar.
49–63 in (125–160 cm); 14.6–33 lb (6.6–15.0 kg). Characteristic knob on bill.
Central and northern Europe, locally in Russia and Siberia, patchily from Turkey to eastern China. Winters in northern Africa, Black Sea, northwestern India, and Korea. Populations anywhere else are introduced.
Freshwater marshes, lagoons, and rivers; artificial lakes and canals.
Territorial. The 11.12 acres (4.5 ha) large territories defended very aggressively, even by killing other birds. Clap feet on water and perform rotation displays to advertise their territories. Migratory.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Feeds mostly on aquatic vegetation, seeds, grasses, small amphibians, and invertebrates. Dabbles and rarely dives.
Perennially monogamous. Breeds in spring. Nests are large platforms of vegetation built on floating mats or reeds. Lay 5–7 eggs. Incubation 35–36 days; fledging 120–150 days; become sexually mature at the earliest during the third year.
Range expanding and abundances increasing.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
Symbolizes purity, love, and elegance in many cultures making it the stuff of myths. Common in parks.
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