Sitta europaea Linnaeus, 1758. Twenty-five subspecies.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
English: Eurasian nuthatch, wood nuthatch; French: Sittelle torchepot; German: Kleiber; Spanish: Trepador Azul.
5.5 in (14 cm), with a short tail. The back is colored blue-gray, the crown blue-gray, undersides brown to white, throat white, and with a black line through the eye. However, coloration varies considerably among the approximately 25 geographic subspecies of this wide-ranging species.
Occurs widely in temperate Eurasia, from the Atlantic to Pacific coasts.
Occurs in a wide range of mature temperate forests, ranging from deciduous- to conifer-dominated types.
Occurs as pairs that defend a breeding territory. Does not migrate. Occurs in mixed-species flocks with tits (or chickadees) in the nonbreeding season. The song is a varied series of loud calls.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Gleans invertebrates from tree bark and foliage, especially on branches. Also eats fruits and seeds in winter.
Pairs nest in a tree cavity. The female incubates the eggs but both sexes feed the young.
Not threatened. A widespread and abundant species.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
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