Anas hyemalis Linnaeus, 1758, Arctic Europe and America; monotypic.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
English: Long-tailed duck; French: Harelde borrйale; German: Eisente; Spanish: Pato Havelda.
15.0–22.8 in (38–58 cm); 1.4–1.8 lb (650–800 g). Plumage brighter in winter. Characteristic long streamers.
Coasts of the high Arctic. Winters south of breeding area along coastlines of Bearing Sea Islands, southern Alaska to California, Great Lakes, Atlantic coast from southern Labradador to the Carolinas, the British Isles, Northern and Baltic Seas, Caspian Sea, various lakes in Turkistan, Japan, Korea, and northeastern China.
Breeds in wetlands of tundra and Arctic coasts. Winters in open sea and large deep freshwater lakes.
Territorial until hatching of young. Male defends a 1.24 acres (0.5 ha) small territory on which the female forages, but does not nest. Intruders are threatened with various displays and vocalizations before being chased in flights. Migratory.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Feeds by diving on marine invertebrates and fish. Rarely consumes plant matter.
Seasonally monogamous. Breeding begins May–Jun. Lays 6–9 eggs into a small depression; incubation 24–29 days; fledging 35–40 days; becomes sexually mature at 2 years.
Not threatened. Common to abundant throughout its range. Threats include excessive hunting and oil spills which may kill thousands of birds aggregating in large rafts.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
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