Psittacus pertinax Linnaeus, 1758, Curaзao. Fourteen subspecies.
OTHER COMMON NAMES
English: Brown-throated conure, St. Thomas conure; French: Conure cuivrйe; German: Braunwangensittich; Spanish: Aratinga Pertinaz.
10 in (25 cm); 2.6–3.6 oz (75–102 g). Polytypic species with much geographical variation in extent of yellow on face and brown on throat.
A. p. pertinax: Curaзao, Netherlands Antilles; successfully introduced to St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. A. p. xanthogenia: Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. A. p. arubensis: Aruba, Netherlands Antilles. A. p. aeruginosa: north Colombia and northwest Venezuela. A. p. griseipecta: Sinъ River valley, northeast Colombia. A. p. lehmanni: east Colombia and possibly westernmost Venezuela. A. p. tortugensis: Tortuga Island, Venezuela. A. p. margaritensis: Margarita Island, Venezuela. A. p. venezuelae: much of Venezuela. A. p. chrysophrys: southeast Venezuela and neighboring northern Brazil. A. p. surinama: Guianas and neighboring northeast Venezuela. A. p. chrysogenys: Rio Negro region, and possibly on Rio Solimхes, northwest Brazil. A. p. paraensis: Rio Tapajуs and Rio Cururu, north-central Brazil. A. p. ocularis: Panama.
Lowlands and less commonly foothills; principally natural savannas and deciduous woodlands, but present in wide variety of open habitats from arid scrublands to plantations and cultivation; avoids dense forest, so
Sedentary, though local wandering and some seasonal movements in search of food. Generally in pairs or small parties, but large flocks attracted to concentrated food source; noisy, especially during swift, erratic flight with constant direction change; often calls from conspicuous perch atop emergent leafless branch of dead or deciduous tree; in late evening flies about, screeching almost incessantly before retreating to nighttime roost; tame where not persecuted, often present in or around towns and villages.
FEEDING ECOLOGY AND DIET
Seeds, nuts, fruits, berries, flowers, and probably insect larvae taken in trees and bushes; at study site in Venezuela up to 70% of food plants was taken from human cultivation; causes damage to maize crops and in orchards.
Monogamous. Breeding season variable throughout extensive range, and nesting recorded in almost all months, possibly influenced by rainfall. Nest normally in hole excavated by birds in arboreal termitarium, but also in holes in trees, in crevices in rocks or wall of buildings, and in burrows excavated in earth banks; four or five nest-holes excavated in same decayed tree trunk; clutch of two to seven, usually four to five eggs; in captivity incubation of 23 days, probably only by female; young birds vacated nest about 40 days after hatching.
Generally common, locally abundant; often most numerous parrot in district. Probably benefits from landclearing and cultivation, so range may be expanding. Listed on CITES Appendix II.
SIGNIFICANCE TO HUMANS
Considered pest in orchards and croplands, so locally persecuted; not popular as cagebird.
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