The Breed History
This ancient breed, a perennial favorite, is often referred to simply as the Siamese. Evidence of their development was first recorded in Siam (now Thailand) in the fifteenth century, though only in seal point variety. These cats were keenly treasured by royalty, and for a while, ownership was limited to royalty. Early cats were of the Traditional Applehead conformation, and had a heavier body build than the modern version of the Siamese cat. They were first exported to America around 1878. The first breed standard was drawn up in 1892. CFA accepted the breed in 1927. Blue point did not become a recognized breed color until 1934.
Weight: Female 6-8 lb (2.5-3.5 kg), Male 8-12 lb (3.5-5.5 kg)
Coat: Sleek, short, fine, single, close lying. Accepted colors in North America registries include:
Seal point [fawn body with brown-black points]
Blue point [deep silver-slate blue points with gray body]
Lilac point [white body and gray-pink points; is frost]
Chocolate point [ivory body with rich chocolate points]
Points include a masked face, tail, paws, and ears. In some registries, particularly in Europe, the Siamese can be registered in additional colors. These other colors are recognized in America as the Colorpoint Shorthair breed. The Himalayan factor is the basis for the pointing pattern (cs cs), and is an autosomal recessive. Coloring darkens somewhat with age. High ambient temperatures lead to lighter pointing.
Eyes: Always an intense sapphire blue. Eyes are close-set, almond shaped and moderate in size.
Points of Conformation: The distinctly wedge-shaped long head is triangular, and large ears are placed to continue that facial plane along their outer margins. Ear tips are pointed. No break; the face is flat on profile, the nose is long and straight. The body is long, lithe, fine-boned, and the neck is fine. The limbs are long and paws are small and oval. The tail is fine, long and tapering with no kinks, reaching the tip of the hind paw when drawn downwards. The Traditional or Applehead Siamese is a distinct subtype within the breed. The Traditional has a rounder body and head, and is not a show type but is registered as a Siamese cat in almost all registries. The Tonkinese is quite close in body type to the Applehead.
Grooming: The Siamese cat has low grooming needs. Just a quick wipe with hand or chamois is needed.
Recognized Behavior Issues and Traits
Reported breed characteristics include: Playful; even exuberant, affectionate, talkative with a loud voice, at some times when yowling is said to be like a baby crying. High intelligence, and have high attention needs, forming a very strong bond with their favorite person. Excellent jumpers, they need play time. Some can be demanding at times. They are really gregarious; good with pets and children. Will more readily leash train than most other breeds; often referred to as dog-like in their personality traits.
Normal Breed Variations
They reach sexual maturity early. 100% type A blood type was reported.
None reported in the literature.
Imperfect (temperature sensitive, t-s) Albinism/Himalayan
Pointing Gene: This genetic change produces a so-called imperfect albino condition because of the partial loss of tyrosinase function-where the skin is cooler, the pigment production is normal and in warm areas, melanin production does not occur as the enzyme does not function at the higher temperatures. Siamese pointed cats are homozygous (cs cs) at the pointing gene locus. This genotype is part of an allele series [true albinism (ca ca)], Siamese (cs cs), Mink Tonkinese (cb cs), Burmese (cb cb)] listed in sequence here from more to less heavily expressed phenotype.2 Albinism has other expression apart from pointing effects.
Gene effects on Coat: Kittens are born white. They gradually develop points starting before weaning and it is not until about one year of age for many cats that the points are fully developed. Note that if the veterinary health care team members shave for intravenous access anywhere but in the darkest fur, the fur will grow back in as a dark patch initially, and only very gradually will it begin to match the surrounding coat color. This is a consideration for show cats. Older cats become gradually darker.
Gene effects on Vision: Congenitally abnormal visual pathways are associated with ts-albinism in the Siamese:
A. Reduced binocular vision and reduced visual acuity due to excess decussation of fibers at the optic chiasma. Melanin pigment in retinal pigmented epithelium normally plays a supporting role in axonal growth from the eye to the brain and so central pathways (retino-geniculo-cortical) are altered when this regulator is absent as in Siamese ts-albinism. Retinal X cellshave a role in spatial resolution and altered numbers lead to reduced spatial resolution/contrast sensitivity in vision. A few functional binocular cells are left in the brain, and more in the supra-sylvian areas allow for coarse stereopsis.
These aforementioned congenitally abnormal pathways are associated with:
Convergent Strabismus (Esotropia): So-called "cross-eyed" cats used to be more common. This condition does not appear to adversely affect functional vision because cats are compensating for impaired stereopsis, even though the visual pathways remain abnormal.6 Affected Siamese newborns have divergent strabismus; a normal finding in neonates, but as they mature, by a few months of age eyes are parallel but then migrate inward to compensate for deviated central vision pathways. The abnormal eye position helps the cat compensate for visual pathway defect.
Nystagmus: Also a compensating strategy that allows the cats to work around the hard wired defect. Nystagmus may improve with age and disappear briefly when a cat focuses on a subject of interest.6 Both of these secondary signs result from the compensation for abnormal processing of unconscious light responses and are not primary structural defects, just responses . Abnormalities in the visual pathways occur in all Siamese pointed cats but the phenotype varies. The resulting changes in vision are complex, but it is notable that a portion of the cat's visual field is inverted/opposite to the normal display. All Siamese cats lack normal binocular vision. New research shows that the c(b) allele of the albino locus gene are variants on the D1 chromosome specifying tyrosinase and the chocolate (b) and cinnamon (b(9l)) a second allele at the B (brown) locus are nucleotide variants of TYRP1 (chromosome D4). The mutations are reported to most likely to be identical by descent rather than multiple mutation events occurring at the same site in another study.
Familial AA Amyloidosis: Systemic amyloidosis is an inherited disorder leading to amyloid deposition in various organs and tissues, including liver and kidney. The liver is commonly the significant organ involved in Siamese cats (compare with amyloidosis in Abyssinians where significant signs are mostly renal). Cats 1-5 years of age are typically affected. Considered to be familial, Siamese cats account for ~95% of reported cases of AA amyloidosis. Spontaneous hepatic rupture associated with hepatic amyloid deposition can occur.
In a case report, two cats from one cattery with amyloidosis were described. This condition led to spontaneous liver hemorrhage in one cat, and chronic renal failure in another, so signs vary depending on which organ is most affected.
In one report (1987-1994), 6.2% of Siamese/Oriental cats presented for post mortem were affected by generalized AA amyloidosis. The amyloid fibril protein (AA) amino acid sequence is different than that found in the Abyssinian form of this condition. Clinical signs of amyloidosis include anorexia, vomiting, stomatitis, anemia, emaciation, painful distended abdomen and diarrhea. Post mortem changes may include pale friable engorged liver and spleen, and dilation of intestines. A few cases in the retrospective study were found to have had concurrent FIP, and a few had recently gone through parturition.
In a study of cats (1983-1987) in the Netherlands, 1.5% of 710 Siamese referrals were diagnosed with AA-amyloidosis. In 36% of the Siamese cats with amyloidosis, inflammatory conditions were present (rhinitis, FIP).
The apolipoprotein, apo-serum amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis propensity is still not certainly a solely genetically problem. Recent sequencing of the proteins shows mutations in amino acids related to a particular breed present in other breeds, and this may mean that in addition to the presence of amyloid-associated genes, other factors such as chronic inflammation or certain infections are involved in the genesis of phenotypic clinical amyloidosis. At least three genes or gene clusters may be responsible for the trait.
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI (MPS VI): This is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease resulting from deficiency of the enzyme N-acetyl-galactosamine-4-sulfatase (aryl sulfatase B) leading to the accumulation of the glucosaminoglycan (GAG), dermatan sulfate. The central nervous system appears to be spared in this condition even when expressed in its most severe form. The skeletal system is the primary target. A test has identified a mutation (label: L476P) leading to the condition. Note that in the past, the Berry urinary spot test (toluidine blue) was used as a screening test to identify excess GAGs in the urine, and remains useful. Three distinct phenotypes from two separate distinct mutations (L476P, D520N) were reported in a study. The L476P homozygote cats have coarse facial features (broad face, short nose, small ears), dwarfism, degenerative joint disease (DJD), widespread leukocyte and other cellular lysosomal inclusions, and dermatan sulfaturia. The two other genotypes (D520N homozygous, and L476P/D520N) have normal growth and appearance but internal changes. The L476P/D520N is the mildest in expression. Skeletal disorders such as DJD are primary endpoints of the MPS VI trait. In a screening study of three continents, the mutation D520N was found in 11.4% of the open Siamese cat population from 5 of 6 countries. It was concluded that the genotypes D520N/D520N and D520N/L476P are likely widely distributed in the general population. These cats will be normal except for an increase in DJD, particularly at the caudal aspect of the proximal humeral epiphysis, and mild changes in the femorotibial joints may also occur. Radiographic hallmarks of the condition include: generalized osteopenia, severe vertebral epiphyseal dysplasia, coarse trabeculae and irregular subchondral bone development. Facial dysmorphia and stunted growth are evident starting at about 8 weeks of age in severe genotype kittens. Hind limb paresis or paralysis may develop due to compression of the spinal cord. A stiff gait and reduced activity may be noted. Mild basophilic granulation in neutrophils routinely prepared for blood films can be useful as a screening test. Definitive diagnosis requires specialized testing available at the University of Pennsylvania, or one can run the urine dermatan sulfate test.18 In North America, at least seven families have produced clinical cases of MPS VI. Presence of atypical DJD or other skeletal disease in Siamese should place MPS VI on the differential list. This trait can affect the eyes also. Corneal opacification occurs; frosted appearance of the eyes may be noted by 11 weeks of age, progressing until one year of age; marked pathology occurs in the RPE, but is not visualized clinically. In man this disease is termed Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy (rdAc): Autosomal recessive genetic disease causing blindness. Found at a gene frequency of 33% in the breed. See under Abyssinian. A genetic test is available.
Wool Sucking: Onset is usually after weaning, also affects Siamese crosses. Target is commonly a blanket, or knitted clothing. Compulsive behavior often ends at sexual maturity, but some cases may have late onset or continue signs late into life. A study found 55% of fabric eating cats were Siamese in a group of 152 affected cats. Behavior is characterized by compulsive stereotypic oral movement. Though many cats begin with substrate of wool, many add other types of fabric, and even non-fabric substrates (plastics). Early weaned cats are over-represented but there is no clear causal relationship.
Separation Anxiety Syndrome: Of a study group of 136 cats with SAS symptoms, Siamese accounted for 6 % of the cats. In this breed, most commonly the females defecated, and males expressed excessive vocalization.
Floppy Pinnae: With a middle adulthood age of onset, normal ears become floppy ears (just the upper portion of the pinna). This condition can resolve without treatment.22 One theory is that flopping is due to relapsing polychondritis, which requires a biopsy for diagnosis.
Corneal Sequestration (Synonym: Black body or cornea nigrum): Siamese cats are over-represented. Usually in central or paracentral cornea; brown to black pigmented lesion; often surrounded by a loose collarette of poorly adherent corneal epithelium. Stromal necrosis may extend into shallow or deep stroma, or even to Descemet's membrane. Sloughing and corneal healing may take 2-6 months; surgical debridement is another option. Material may be tear concretion mixed with stroma and inflammatory cells.
Progressive Retinal Atrophy (PRA): A breed predilection for diffuse bilateral PRA was reported. First changes include attenuation of retinal blood vessels, retinal thinning in the area centralis (tapetal glow), then generalized tapetal hyperreflectivity, and progressing to ghosted or absent dorsal vessels with attenuated optic disc. Vision loss occurs late in the process and night vision is retained. Client complaints include the cat bumping into things, reluctance to jump, and mydriasis.
Open Angle Glaucoma: A chronic primary glaucoma that may have Siamese breed predilection. Affected cats gradually progress in severity of clinical signs, and may develop luxation of lens.
Hyperthyroidism: Reduced risk for this breed was reported.
Siamese cats were almost 10x less likely to develop hyperthyroidism (Odds Ratio 9.6) than non-Siamese.
Pancreatitis: In a retrospective case study (40 cases) Siamese cats were overrepresented (15% of the cases). Necrosis and suppurative inflammation were two distinct forms. Hypokalemia occurred in about half of the cats, and normal lipase and amylase were found. In a previous report, 39% of pancreatitis cases were Siamese breed.
Dsytocia: A survey of 2,928 litters (multiple cat breeds) was carried out to ascertain prevalence of dystocia, and an over-representation of Siamese cats was found. A total of 571 Siamese litters were analyzed. The average rate in a mixed breed colony for dystocia was 0.4% of litters. A rate of 10% was found in Siamese cats.
Cervical Neck Lesions: Increased risk was reported in a survey where Siamese were one of two breeds (the other being Abyssinian) most commonly affected by Feline Odontoclastic Resorptive Lesions.
Gingivitis and Periodontal Disease: Anecdotal evidence of increased prevalence.
Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: Siamese breed cats were 23% of affected cats (3/13) in a survey, though they made up only 5% of the population (of 13,250). Average body weight in the pooled study group was 5.6 kg, significantly over the normal average for cats. A physeal dysplasia was characterized by diffusely widened physis with disorganized cartilage. Though this condition is typically associated with trauma in dogs, in this set of cases there was no history of any trauma. It is likely the growth plate cannot handle normal shear stresses due to the dysplasia. This condition affected cats 4.5-24 months of age. A genetic etiology is suspected. Insulin levels or insulin receptor resistance in obesity was proposed to play a role in physeal dysplasia.
Medial Patellar Luxation (MPL): A study reported that of 12 Siamese cats assessed as part of a larger study, five had abnormal patella seating with easily induced luxation. Compared with the rate of affected cats in non-pedigreed (2/31), Siamese had an increased MPL prevalence in this particular study.
Hip Dysplasia (HD) may be associated with luxating patellas. In another report, Siamese cats had a frequency of 7.1% hip dysplasia.
Adenocarcinoma (small intestine): Breed associated risk was reported to be eight times that for other cat breeds. In a population where 7.8% of cats in the group were of Siamese breed, 71% of the cases were diagnosed in Siamese cats.36 In 100 previously published cases 42% were Siamese breed. In retrospective case study at MSU (1975-1985) for GI adenocarcinoma in cats, 6/11 cases were Siamese. In this report tubular adenocarcinoma case survival time was an average of 11 months, while mucinous and undifferentiated type had average survival times of 4 months. Overall, a survival time of 5 months with metastasis, and 10 months for patients without metastases was the reported average.
Lymphosarcoma (LSA): In a retrospective case study of 7,159 admissions over a decade, 60 cats had LSA; Siamese cats were predisposed. Young Siamese and Orientals when pooled accounted for 33.3% of LSA cases, though they made up only 2% of the hospital population. Mediastinal LSA (thymus, mediastinal lymph nodes) was most common in Siamese cats, and 86% of mediastinal cases were diagnosed in Siamese, with mean age 2 years. All were FeLV negative. Breed lines diagnosed with early onset LSA had origins in Europe and Australia.50 A recent report describes analysis of two families that supports the hypothesis that this is an autosomal recessive trait, and homozygous in affected patients.
Feline Dilated Cardiomyopathy (DCM): Siamese cats may be predisposed. Incidence has dropped since dietary supplementation with taurine began, but cases still occur. Average age of onset is 7 years. Previously, mortality for DCM was ~85%, but with taurine supplementation the mortality is in ~30%-50% range. Feline clinical signs are not typically a cough as in the dog; heart rate may range from bradycardia to tachycardia. Systolic heart murmur or diastolic gallop can often be heard, and 61% have arrhythmias, usually ventricular. Echocardiography is the best modality for definitive diagnosis.
Renal Failure: Rate for Siamese was identified to be more than double baseline in a study (1980-1990, 189,371 cases. Purdue Veterinary Medical Database) at an odds ratio for risk of 2.6:1, with prevalence of 2.8%.
Lower Urinary Tract Disease: Higher than expected rates of cystine urolithiasis reported in a small study group (3/18 were Siamese).54 Oxalate uroliths have been reported to be the most common type of stones in Siamese cats (especially males), and urate and cystine stones also more common than expected.
Myasthenia Gravis: The congenital form seen in the breed is not associated with antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (as in Abyssinian and Somali cats). Same symptoms as the acquired form are seen.
Feline Bronchial Asthma: (Synonyms: allergic bronchitis, chronic bronchitis, feline lower airway disease). Siamese breed cats are overrepresented-in a retrospective study, of 22 cats with lower airway disease, Siamese made up 55% of afflicted cats. Cough was seen in most but not all cats. Radiographs were normal in 23% of affected cats. These authors summarize earlier findings that indicate Siamese and Himalayan cats are at higher risk, perhaps due to genetic susceptibility. Siamese may have a more prolonged clinical course, and a relapsing tendency.
Rare and Isolated Reports
Sphingomyelinosis: (Feline Neimann-Pick Disease): An autosomal recessive polyneuropathy resulting from the reduction of the enzyme sphingomyelinase. This results in a storage disease characterized by accumulation of cholesterol, gangliosides and sphingomyelin. Head and fine generalized tremors, stunted growth, progressive lower motor neuron tetraparesis, hypermetria and ataxia begin at about 8-20 weeks of age. Signs are slowly progressive over months. Anisocoria and blindness are usually present by 5 months of age. Head tremors lead to dysphagia. Late stage signs include plantigrade/palmigrade stance, weakness, and hepatosplenomegaly. Onset of polyneuropathy is usually before 1 year of age.20 Diagnosis is by nerve biopsy, lysosomal enzyme and lipid testing in skin, liver and or brain tissue, and EMG (slow conduction velocity).
Congenital Hydrocephalus: A genetic basis for Siamese cats with this trait was proposed. The hydrocephalus leads to dilated ventricles, with resulting pressure necrosis of the nervous tissue surrounding them. Clinically, domed skulls, lateral strabismus (setting sun sign), vision defects, and spastic gait problems result. Aggression, dullness, circling, and seizures may also be seen.
Neuroaxonal Dystrophy: A degenerative neurologic condition in two littermates has been described. The condition resulted in swollen distal ends/pre-terminal segments of the axons in the central nervous system. This is an autosomal recessive condition. Ataxia starts at about 2 weeks of age; head tremor occurs first, then hypermetria and rear limb paralysis. In these 2 kittens, coat pigmentation was normal.
Hypomyelination of the Central Nervous System (Congenital Tremors): Two littermates were reported to be affected by early onset tremors, seizures and ataxia. A third kitten died at three days of age. By four weeks of age, the surviving littermates had tremors with frenzied biting episodes when active; normal at rest. Peripheral myelin was normal, while CNS myelin was abnormal/reduced. The unusual frenzied biting behavior has not been reported in other species with this condition and is thought to be associated with paresthesia secondary to inappropriate responses of hypo-myelinated nerves.
Inherited Hyperchylomicronemia: Presenting signs include weakness, loss of appetite and severe anemia by 4 weeks of age. This defect in lipoprotein lipase enzyme activation was seen in two related litters. The clinically normal parents and related kittens had reduced enzyme activity also. This is suspected to be an autosomal recessive inheritance.
Fasting hyperchylomicronemia, hypertriglyceridemia, lipemia retinalis, splenomegaly, and xanthomata of skin, and liver and kidney, and sometimes anemia are also described. Xanthomata (fat granulomas) in the vicinity of the nerves lead to nerve compression and subsequent dysfunction such as rear limb paresis (with plantigrade stance) and cranial nerve dysfunction. If the levels of lipid and lipoproteins are high, the blood may take on the gross appearance of cream of tomato soup.
A transient hyperlipidemia and anemia was described in three litters of Siamese kittens. Severe hypertriglyceridemia and anemia were noted around the time of weaning, and 3 of 4 siblings and 1 of 5 half siblings from the litters were affected. Marked elevation of chylomicrons and VLDL were identified. Anorexia, ataxia, and lethargy were predominant clinical signs.
Hemophilia B (Christmas Disease, Factor IX Deficiency): A sex-linked recessive hemorrhagic disorder with resulting hemarthrosis, excessive post-surgical hemorrhage, gingival hemorrhage and spontaneous hematoma formation. Females are asymptomatic carriers, males are affected.
GM1-Gangliosidosis: A beta-galactosidase deficiency. Recent studies show the same mutation is responsible for this condition in both Korat and Siamese cats.
Ceroid Lipofuscinosis: This is a lysosomal storage disease, with lipofuscin accumulation. Signs may include seizures and weakness. An autosomal recessive inheritance has been postulated.
Copper Storage Disease: Peri-acinar (centrilobular) copper accumulation in liver of cats has been reported (as in Bedlington terriers). In one affected cat, at post mortem at 2 years of age, granules were found to have accumulated in proximal convoluted tubules/collecting ducts of kidney and in the macrophages/alveolar epithelium of the lung as well.
Merosin (laminin О±-2) Deficient Myopathy/Muscular Dystrophy: Mode of inheritance of laminin О±-2 deficiency is unknown. Rear limb weakness begins at 6 months of age, progressively worsening atrophy and contracture occurs by one year old; those in the report were euthanized before reaching 24 months of age.
Porphyria: Porphyrin (porphobilinogen) accumulates in bones, teeth, urine making them stain brown, and fluoresce. In regular light, urine appears brown.16 Affected cats may be sensitive to sunlight; porphyria is not usually life threatening. Refractile bodies occur in erythrocytes; may also develop hemolytic anemia. Concurrent nephropathy (tubular ischemia, mesangial proliferation) occurred.31 Due to deficiency of uroporphyrinogen III synthetase, porphobilinogen deaminase. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance is reported.
Endocardial Fibroelastosis: An elastic thickening extending diffusely through the endocardium. Left atrium and left ventricle affected, reported age of onset in early postnatal period, or alternatively, middle age in Siamese cats. This is a very rare condition. Genetic basis was suggested.
Persistent Atrial Standstill: Siamese may have a breed predisposition to this rare problem. Bradycardia is poorly responsive to medical management; a pacemaker may be needed.
Cutaneous Mastocytoma: Locally recurring, usually in younger Siamese cats; this presentation is a rare subtype of cutaneous mastocytoma. Usually multiple nodules (> 5) in deep dermis and subcutis; histiocytic-like cells, noted to cluster in household in siblings, mostly on head; a genetic predisposition possible. These have low metastatic potential.
Vitiligo: Symmetrical pigment loss on the footpads, nose and eyelids. May be immune mediated (melanocyte surface marker antibodies found).
Feline Hyperesthesia Syndrome: (Synonyms: rolling skin disease; psychomotor epilepsy.
Junctional Epidermolysis bullosa: A recessive condition with skin blisters where the weak collagen breaks down. It is first seen pre-weaning and may result in claw loss.
Other conditions reported in the breed include: Psychogenic Alopecia, Malignant Mammary Tumors (early onset tendency), Food Hypersensitivity, Familial Cleft Palate, Congenital Portosystemic Shunts (usually extrahepatic), Insulinoma, PTH tumors, hydrocephalus, congenital deafness, pyloric stenosis, intestinal polyps, hemophilia B, mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC), hereditary porphyria, kinked tails, mast cell tumors, congenital peripheral vestibular disease, juvenile ataxia, aortic stenosis.
Mucopolysaccharidosis Type VI Josephine Deubler Genetic Testing Laboratory (PennGen). At the University of Pennsylvania veterinary hospital. Minimum of 1-2 ml EDTA blood processed within 48 hours-express mail service in padded mailer adequate. Is not necessary to cool; avoid freezing. Test request form available online. Can do concurrent blood typing. Can submit a pair of buccal swabs for testing. http:// research.vet.upenn.edu/SubmitaSample/tabid/554/Default.aspx UC Davis Feline Genome Project (Dr. Lesley Lyons) Submit buccal swabs for research on possible autosomal recessive inheritance for lymphoma. http://www.vetmed.ucdavis.edu/Catgenetics/Feline_ Research_Projects.html Older cats should be screened for renal function using serum creatinine and urinalysis (as a minimum) in cats 8 years and older since there is a breed propensity for renal failure. Direct genetic test for rdAc-PRA is available from UC-Davis VGL.
- Breed name synonyms: Temple cat of Siam, Royal cat of Siam, Thai cat, Meeser, Meesy
- Registries: FIFe (Siamese), TICA (Siamese), CFA, ACFA (Siamese), CFF (Siamese), GCCF (includes Balinese as Longhaired Siamese), ACF, WCF (with Oriental Shorthair), NZCF (Siamese), CCA (Siamese)
- Breed resources: National Siamese Cat Club: http://nationalsiamese.com
Seal Point Siamese Cat Club (GCCF): http://sealpointsiamesecatclub.org/
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